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Experimental Research

 

Reasearch Design Methods Research designs are experimental or non-experimental . The experimental investigation carried out in the laboratories primarily in the field of basic research. The main advantage of the experimental design is that it offers the opportunity to identify the cause and effect relationships . The non-experimental research , for example , case studies , surveys, correlational studies , observational research is not generally made manipulative natural environments . While controlled laboratory experimental studies tend to be higher in internal validity, experimental studies do not tend to be higher in external validity.

One of the main limitations of experimental research is that studies are conducted in the laboratory usually artificial or artificial . Results may not generalize or extrapolate to the external adjustments . Two exceptions to this rule are natural experiments and field experiments . Natural Document experiments and compare the behaviors of the subjects before and after a natural event such as floods , tornadoes , hurricanes . Field experiments involving the manipulation of conditions in the natural environment in order to determine their influence on behavior. The field experiment is unique insofar as it tends to be moderately high in both the internal and external validity .

In experimental research , the researcher manipulates the conditions for the purpose of determining its effect on the behavior. Subjects should be conscious of belonging to an experimental group so that they do not act differently ( Hawthorne effect ) . In the simplest design experimental , researchers administering a placebo for the control group and a treatment for the experimental group. Experimental designs vary in terms of assignments of subjects to different groups , whether subjects were pre-tested , if the different treatments were given to different groups , and are investigating the number of variables.

Experiments are usually structured in terms of independence , organization , and the dependent variables . The independent variable is manipulated environmental stimulus dimension , the variable – organism is a dimension (eg , gender , race) of more or less stable in the body, and the dependent variable is a dimension of behavior that reflects the influence of the independent and body – variables. The overall objective in experimental research is to define the relationship between the antecedent ( independent body) variables and consequent variables (dependent).

Research Ethics
Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the influence of experimenter bias , which threatens the internal validity of the research. If the experimenter is aware of the hypothesis of the experiment, it is more likely that the hypothesis was confirmed . The effect of the experimenter – bias can be controlled by maintaining not only the subjects ( single blind ) , but also the experimenter blind to the hypothesis. This is called the double-blind procedure .

The ethical dilemma principle that researchers face is to decide between the costs to humans and animals resulting from the conduct of the research and the potential benefits for humanity. This dilemma is playing – in the public research on human embryonic stem cells . Other ethical issues include : obtaining the consent of the subject to participate in the study (especially if children are involved ), maintaining the anonymity and confidentiality , and informing subjects if used deception.

     

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Oct
8
2013